The existence of a reliability gap between theoretical performance of a building and its realization in everyday operation has been known to experts since many years (Jensen 2009: 125 quotes an early example from the 1960s). However, with increasing ambitions regarding the energy performance of buildings it has gained new urgency. According to Bordass et al. (2004) disappointing performance of buildings can be related to wrong models, to changes and mistakes made during the construction phase, to bad routines in the commissioning of the building and to deviations from the intended use in the use phase.
A broad array of concepts, methods and measures has been proposed that link actors and technologies from the different sides of the gap together in order to improve the general performance (including energy efficiency) that is achieved in daily operation - but also in order to improve design processes: facilities management, soft landings (Way 2005), contracting of operation and maintenance during the construction phase, continuous commissioning (CCx, Femp 2002), continuous briefing (Jensen 2006), and building performance evaluation (BPE, Preiser & Vischer, 2005).
Bordass, B., Robert C., and Field, J.. 2004. Energy Performance of Non-Domestic Buildings: Closing the Credibility Gap. Building performance congress, Frankfurt.
FEMP 2002. Continuous Commissioning Guidebook for Federal Energy Managers. Office of energy efficiency and renewable energy. U.S. department of energy (DOE).
Jensen, P.A. 2006. "Continuous Briefing and User Participation in the Building Process." In Proceedings of Adaptables 2006: International Conference on Adaptability in Design and Construction,p. 119-123. Eindhoven University of Technology.
Jensen, P. A. 2009. Design Integration of Facilities Management: A Challenge of Knowledge Transfer. Architectural Engineering and Design Management 5 (3): 124-135.
Preiser, W. & Vischer, J. 2005. The evolution of building performance evaluation: an introduction. In: Preiser, W. & Visher, J. (eds.) Assessing Building Performance. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford. Schatzki, T. R.; Knorr-Cetina, K.; Savigny E.. 2001. The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. New York: Routledge.
Way, M. 2005. Soft Landings. Journal of Facilities Management 4 (1): 23.